Despite having 71% water on earth, most of the sources comprise organic materials, chemicals, and manmade pollutants, which makes it unavailable for our use. When the water becomes unsafe for drinking, we require water treatment methods that are safe and effective in treating any type of water. Since water can contain deadly bacteria and viruses, the water treatment methods need to be more effective than just filtration. There are methods that are effective from smaller to larger scale water treatment. Despite the same basic principles, the water treatment systems can differ based on their process of water treatment. Here are seven water treatment methods used in different parts of the world.
Coagulation is the method of adding liquid aluminum sulfate or alum with a polymer to untreated water. Using this method, one can catch all the dirt particles in the water. This is why it is known as coagulation or flocculation. The dirt particles come together and stick together, forming flocs, which can then be filtered from the water.
Sedimentation is one of the oldest methods of removing dirt from water. In this method, the water and dirt are poured together into sedimentation basins. The water moves slowly, and the water's heavy particles slowly settle down to the bottom of the basin. Now the water can be filtered further for a cleaner method without the need of filtering the floc that becomes sludge after settling down.
Filtration is the most common method of water treatment that is used in homes. Filteration makes it easy to remove particles and dirt from water. The natural filters are made of gravel and sand or crushed anthracite. Filteration also offers better safety to water from bacteria. It can work as a disinfectant and can make water effective for drinking use.
Most companies that provide drinking water in packed bottles use disinfectants that promise their customers safe drinking water. The disinfectants can get rid of bacteria and viruses that can cause diseases. Chlorine is one of the disinfectants that provides effective water treatment. It is used to treat water in tanks that supply water to homes in society.
The pH correction method involves lime combined with filtered water. It is used to stabilize naturally soft water so the corrosion can be minimized while distributing water on a larger scale. Plumbers use the pH correction method to provide clean water through the pipes that are at risk of being corroded from the inside.